Friday, May 22, 2020
The Bell X-1 was a rocket-powered aircraft developed for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the US Army Air Forces that first flew in 1946. Intended for research into transonic flight, the X-1 became the first aircraft to break the sound barrier. The historic flight took place at Muroc Army Airfield on October 14, 1947 with Captain Chuck Yeager at the controls. Over the next several years, a variety of X-1 derivatives were developed and used for aeronautical testing. Design Development Development of the Bell X-1 began in the waning days of World War II as the interest in transonic flight increased. Initially contacted by the US Army Air Forces and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA - now NASA) on March 16, 1945, Bell Aircraft began designing an experimental aircraft dubbed the XS-1 (Experimental, Supersonic). In seeking inspiration for their new aircraft, the engineers at Bell elected use a shape similar to a Browning .50-caliber bullet. This was done as it was known that this round was stable in supersonic flight. Pressing forward, they added short, highly-reinforced wings as well as a movable horizontal tailplane. This latter feature was included to give the pilot increased control at high speeds and later became a standard feature on American aircraft capable of transonic speeds. In the interest of retaining the sleek, bullet shape, Bells designers elected to use a sloped windscreen in lieu of a more traditional canopy. As a result, the pilot entered and exited the aircraft through a hatch in the side. To power the aircraft, Bell selected an XLR-11 rocket engine capable of around 4-5 minutes of powered flight. Bell X-1E GeneralLength: 31 ft.Wingspan: 22 ft. 10 in.Height: 10 ft. 10 in.Wing Area: 115 sq. ft.Empty Weight: 6,850 lbs.Loaded Weight: 14,750 lbs.Crew: 1PerformancePower Plant: 1 Ãâ" Reaction Motors RMI LR-8-RM-5 rocket, 6,000 lbfRange: 4 minutes, 45 secondsMax Speed: 1,450 mphCeiling: 90,000 ft. Bell X-1 Program Never intended for production, Bell constructed three X-1s for the USAAF and NACA. The first began glide flights over Pinecastle Army Airfield on January 25, 1946. Flown by Bells chief test pilot, Jack Woolams, the aircraft made nine glide flights before being returned to Bell for modifications. Following Woolams death during practice for the National Air Races, the X-1 moved to Muroc Army Air Field (Edwards Air Force Base) to begin powered test flights. As the X-1 was not capable of taking off on its own, it was carried aloft by a modified B-29 Superfortress. With Bell test pilot Chalmers Slick Goodlin at the controls, the X-1 made 26 flights between September 1946 and June 1947. During these tests, Bell took a very conservative approach, only increasing speed by 0.02 Mach per flight. Dismayed by Bells slow progress towards breaking the sound barrier, the USAAF took over the program on June 24, 1947, after Goodlin demanded a $150,000 bonus for achieving Mach 1 and hazard pay for every second spent over 0.85 Mach. Removing Goodlin, the Army Air Force Flight Test Division assigned Captain Charles Chuck Yeager to the project. Breaking the Sound Barrier Familiarizing himself with the aircraft Yeager made several test flights in the X-1 and steadily pushed the aircraft towards the sound barrier. On October 14, 1947, less than a month after the US Air Force became a separate service, Yeager broke the sound barrier while flying X-1-1 (serial #46-062). Dubbing his plane Glamorous Glennis in honor of his wife, Yeager achieved a speed of Mach 1.06 (807.2 mph) at 43,000 feet. A publicity boon for the new service, Yeager, Larry Bell (Bell Aircraft), and John Stack (NACA) were awarded with the 1947 Collier Trophy by the National Aeronautics Association. Captain Chuck Yeager. US Air Force Yeager continued with the program and made 28 more flights in Glamorous Glennis. The most notable of these was on March 26, 1948, when he reached a speed of Mach 1.45 (957 mph). With the success of the X-1 program, the USAF worked with Bell to build modified versions of the aircraft. The first of these, the X-1A, was intended to test aerodynamic phenomena at speeds above Mach 2. Mach 2 First flying in 1953, Yeager piloted one to a new record speed of Mach 2.44 (1,620 mph) on December 12 of that year. This flight broke the mark (Mach 2.005) set by Scott Crossfield in the Douglas Skyrocket on November 20. In 1954, the X-1B began flight testing. Similar to the X-1A, the B variant possessed a modified wing and was used for high speed testing until it was turned over to NACA. Bell X-1A. US Air Force In this new role, it was used until 1958. Among the technology tested on the X-1B was a directional rocket system that was later incorporated into the X-15. Designs were created for the X-1C and X-1D, however the former was never built and the latter, meant for use in heat transfer research, only made one flight. The first radical change to the X-1 design came with the creation of the X-1E. Constructed from one of the original X-1s, the X-1E featured a knife-edge windscreen, new fuel system, a re-profiled wing, and enhanced data collection equipment. First flying in 1955, with USAF test pilot Joe Walker at the controls, the aircraft flew until 1958. During its final five flights it was piloted by NACA research pilot John B. McKay who was attempting to break Mach 3. The grounding of the X-1E in November 1958, brought the X-1 program to a close. In its thirteen-year history, the X-1 program developed the procedures that would be used in subsequent X-craft projects as well as the new US space program.
Friday, May 8, 2020
Throughout Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare, there is an overlaying presence of the typical roles that men and women were supposed to play. During Elizabethan times there was a major difference between the way men and women were supposed to act. Men typically were supposed to be masculine and powerful, and defend the honor. Women, on the other hand, were supposed to be subservient to their men in their lives and do as ever they wished. In Romeo and Juliet the typical gender roles that men and women were supposed to play had an influence on the fate of their lives. The beginning of Act one opens with a brawl in the street between the servants of the Capulets and the Montagues. The origin of the fight introduces theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In Act 1, scene ii. Capulet appeared to be a kind hearted man and he defers to JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to choose for herself, Ã¢â¬Å"My will to her concent is but a partÃ¢â¬ (I.ii.15). JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Lady Capulet also has an influence over Juliet and her life and puts pressure on Juliet to marry Paris (the suitor that her father picked for her to marry). Juliet admits the power of the influence of her parents when she says of Paris, Ã¢â¬Å"I look to like, looking liking move; / But no more deep will I endart mine eye / Than your consent gives strength to flyÃ¢â¬ (I.iii.100-101). The specter of parental influence is very evident in this scene and it shows the influence of the society that they lived in. However, Juliet starts to show strength and intelligence that can be interpreted as a sort of passive resistance that at the end of the play ends her life. In Act II, scene iv, Juliet goes against the wishes of her father and marries Romeo. The morning after their wedding night Juliet learns that her father has moved the day of her wedding with Paris to Thursday in an attempt to make Juliet happy and to try and get her to stop mourning her cousin TybaultÃ¢â¬â¢s death. (Romeo killed Tybault the night of their wedding in his friend MercutioÃ¢â¬â¢s honor.) Juliet is appalled and rejects this by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I will not marry yet; and when I do, I swear /Show MoreRelatedGender Roles Of Romeo And Juliet By William Shakespeare1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Roles in Romance Comics Author and civil rights activist Maya Angelou once said, Ã¢â¬Å"How important it is for us to recognize and celebrate our heroes and she-roes!Ã¢â¬ . When one thinks of comic books, it is very likely that the subjects that come to mind are MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s Spiderman or DCÃ¢â¬â¢s Batman. Although comic books are stereotypically thought to be mainly about super heroes, there are a wide variety of subject matter they could be written about, such as romance. In the 1950s Ã¢â¬â 1960s, it was commonRead MoreRomeo and Juliet Gender Roles1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Roles in Romeo and Juliet In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Romeo and Juliet, Juliet resorts to conniving and shrewd ways in order to control her destiny and free herself from her confined existence. Contrary to the critics who view Juliet as innocent, childish and immature, JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s habits of manipulating peopleÃ¢â¬âparticularly the men in her life, expressly RomeoÃ¢â¬âthrough simulating maleness implies a parallel between the approaches falconers (mostly males) use to train their falcons (mostly females)Read MoreEssay on Fate in William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFate in William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet When William Shakespeare wrote Ã¢â¬ËRomeo JulietÃ¢â¬â¢ he told a tale of Ã¢â¬Å"A pair of star crossed loversÃ¢â¬ . The role of fate plays an important role in the play. The themes of conflict, love, revenge, religion destiny all tie in with the role of fate. Romeo Juliet were both born into and Ã¢â¬Å"ancient grudgeÃ¢â¬ fuelled by two formidable families, the Capulets and Montagues. Fate plays a very important role in the play, and at theRead MoreExamples Of Gender Equality In Romeo And Juliet890 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShana Chen Ms Varone ENG2D3-03 December 21st, 2017 Gender Equality in Romeo and Juliet and Why It Is Relevant Now Romeo and Juliet is a classic play composed by William Shakespeare in the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s. This tale is about two star-crossed lovers whose love was forbidden by their feuding families. Through the story, Shakespeare educates us on his opinion about the society of Verona, Italy and the societal expectations, beliefs, values and gender standards, behaviors for both men and women. DiscriminationRead MoreRomeo And Juliet Gender Roles Essay730 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages the view regarding gender roles was nothing like todayÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Boys were raised to become men: violent, dominant, confident, and decisive beings. Girls were raised to become ladylike figures: subservient, obedient, diffident, and emotional individuals. Conveyed in the tragic play Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare, 14th century gender roles shape and impact the female protagonist, Juliet Capulet. Furthermore, the play reveals the development and growth of Juliet, despite her challengesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1275 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesauspicious and undulous Elizabethan Age made England the temperament of all sexual intercourse, educate, and most importantly, theatre. Romeo and Juliet, the masterwork buskin by William Shakespeare, employ spot in this period conclusion and relief the statement of two immature lovers whose sick-destined deaths finally conclusi on an old class dispute. The two, Romeo and Juliet, arrive from quarreling families who adamantly condemn of their concord. Thus, after intelligent each other for only a few days,Read MoreShakespeare and Women vs. Society and Queen Elizabeth Essay1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThrough the ages, women have always had a powerful role, whether or not it was recognized by society. They cook, clean, give birth, and nurture which all are more than necessary jobs. However, also throughout the ages, women have been separated by society and seen as a lesser being and not being granted the same rights and equality as men. Specifically this can be seen in the Elizabethan age. Queen Elizabeth fought for women to be seen as equals to men through her reign. But in loving the theatreRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIf three crazy old ladies walked up to you and told you would be king would you trust them? Macbeth did and ultimately it led to his tragic demise. The tragedy of Macbeth was written by famous poet William Shakespeare in the earl sixteen hundredth. The play dramatizes the destructive physical and mental effects of radical ambition for people who seek authority for the benefit of an individual. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s theme of ambition, lust for power, faith, and gullibility makes Macbeth his own antagonist, whichRead MoreGender in Shakespeares Othello, Romeo and Juliet, and Twelfth Night3235 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesGriffing 02/08/2012 Shakespeare in Love Analyze the representation of gender in two or more plays and/or films When reading literature from the Renaissance period, it is clear to see male and female characters were thought upon as two completely different types of people. By following what the bible told them about the opposite sexes, writers in this time were able to set specific gender norms for both men and women. However, when reading the works of William Shakespeare, one can sense a riffRead MoreEssay on A Feminist Perspective of William Shakespeare1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Feminist Perspective of Shakespeare Ã Ã Ã Ã Although William Shakespeare reflects and at times supports the English Renaissance stereotypes of women and men and their various roles and responsibilities in society, he is also a writer who questions, challenges, and modifies those representations. His stories afford opportunities not only to understand Renaissance culture better but also to confront our own contemporary generalizations about gender, especially what it means to be female. In his
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Today more than ever, toys are incredibly gendered, and send highly gendered messages to the children who play with them about what an ideal male or female looks like, acts like, and how he or she lives their life. This project aims to look at the ways in which toys are so gendered (based on one trip to a Toys R us store in Greensboro, North Carolina) and to describe the gendering of toys through three sociological perspectives. Section One- Observations In this particular Toys R us, Items were displayed In segregated zones; meaning that there were very clear areas that were for girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ toys and separate, very clear areas that were for boys toys. We will write a custom essay sample on Gender Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now From far away, these sections could be easily distinguished from one another by the headings above each of the aisles that held the toys. On the left side of the store, the signs hanging above the aisles read- Star Wars, Action Figures, and Sports, respectively. On the right side of the store the aisles were marked- Dolls, Dolls, and Pretend Play. Clearly the toys on the right side of the store were meant for girls, and the left side toys were meant for boys. The segregated zones were also easily distinguishable at a glance by the packaging and presentation f the toys on their shelves. Boys toys were packaged In more stereotypical Ã¢â¬Å"masculineÃ¢â¬ colors- red, blue, grey, and black. Further, all the boxes containing boysÃ¢â¬â¢ toys portrayed some sort of motion or action on the boxes. The action portrayed was almost always violent In one way or another; a tank moving, a fist or bullet flying through the air, etc. GirlsÃ¢â¬â¢ toys, by contrast, were packaged completely differently. The boxes for girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ toys were pink. Purple, covered in glitter and sparkles, and almost all had light, feminine language on them- words like Ã¢â¬Å"magicalÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sparklyÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Å"princessÃ¢â¬ , o name a few. Toys R usÃ¢â¬â¢ selection of Nerd- brand toys are an excellent example of how using different packaging and presentation for essentially the same item can be heavily gendered. Being a toy whose concept is rooted in violence, Nerd toys are typically for boys. However, Nerd recently released a line of toy weapons for girls called Rebelled. All the Rebelled toys are pink or purple with flowers and glitter on them to make them appear more feminineÃ¢â¬â¢, and they also have very girl names, such as Ã¢â¬ËHeartbreak BowÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËDiamondsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËDart DivaÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËFemme FireÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËAngel AimÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËPink CrushÃ¢â¬â¢, etc. Even If two Nerd guns of the same make and model were presented side-by side, no shopper would have any trouble knowing which one was being marketed to girls and which to boys. This loaded difference in packaging and presentation was also present everything in the store, whether it could carry a perceived gender role or not, was gendered. Instruments, pens and pencils, notebooks, walked-talkies, playing balls, and several other kinds of toys were packaged in ways in which two items that were essentially the same would be obviously be marketed to one gender or another. Toys hat recreate stereotypical home life are essentially having children play out their societal predetermined future roles. This is seen specifically in the Ã¢â¬Ëpretend play genre of toys. These are model replicas of the realms that children Ã¢â¬ËshouldÃ¢â¬â¢ grow up to occupy. What this means for girls is child-size kitchens and child-size cleaning toys, and baby-dolls. Girls grow up learning through these toys that their place in society is in house and home, cooking, cleaning, and caring for children. The boy versions of these toys are child-size model grills, toolkits, and car-building toys. The brands Home Depot and John Deere both have lines of toys for boys, depicting specifically male things for them to do. Many girl toys also demonstrate that a girl should be heavily focused on keeping herself beautiful. There are a huge amount of toys dedicated to teaching girls how to do the hair, nails, and makeup on their dolls, and most of the dolls marketed to girls all are sold with makeup painted onto their faces. Going even further, the toys also include makeup for the girl to use on herself, teaching girls at an early age that wearing makeup is preferable for women in this society, and generally necessary for them to be considered beautiful. Additionally, dolls marketed to girls all wear makeup and have the societal accepted standard of Ã¢â¬Ëbeauty. Their bodies are skinny, tall, big-breasted, and completely disconnected with what any real human womanÃ¢â¬â¢s actual body might look like. They give girls an image to look up to that they will never attain. Boys also face unrealistic representations of the human physique in their toys. Action figures marketed to them all have huge muscles, square Jaws, and other features that conform to the societal idea of the deal male body. Toy companies go even further than giving girls unrealistic body expectations in terms of not working to connect their toys to reality. They girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ toys section had absolutely no toys that were designed to be replicas of real people from the real world. Girls had no role models foam reality represented in toys. BoysÃ¢â¬â¢ toys, on the other hand, had several role models represented in their action figures. These men were almost entirely athletes; baseball or basketball players, wrestlers or MASCARA drivers (another male-dominated field). These toys teach boys to idealize throng, wealthy, masculine, sometimes violent men, without giving them any more realistic images to aspire to. Section Two- Perspectives Looking at the issue of highly gendered toys through various sociological lenses can provide us with several insights on why the toys children play with carry such thinly veiled and heavily stereotyped messages. Through a Symbolic Internationalist lens, toys themselves are symbols used to convey meaning. This paradigm focuses on the role of symbols in colonization and social interaction, and argues that society is formed when groups of people all give the same meaning to the same symbols and Greer on how these symbols play into their colonization. Using this paradigm, toys can be regarded as symbols in that in many cases they are child versions of adult things, meaning the toy replicas of kitchens, babies, tools, cars, grills, etc. They symbolize the appropriate material symbols in the life that the child will grow in to. Stages of their development, is directing them to live and act in a certain way that society considers ideal. Structural Functionalism dictates that society is a functionally integrated, problem- solving entity. Through this lens, the subject of gendered colonization through toys loud be seen as a developed response to a certain problem. Hypothetically, using toys to teach children how they ought to behave could be a carefully constructed response on behalf of toy manufacturers to the problem of children not being socialized Ã¢â¬Ëproperly. If children were not being socialized to behave in their predetermined manners, this Ã¢â¬ËdevianceÃ¢â¬â¢ could pose a threat to traditional gender roles in the United States and to keeping things functioning the way they Ã¢â¬ËshouldÃ¢â¬â¢. The function of the gendered toys could be to keep society working Ã¢â¬Ëproperly in whatever way they could. One last way of looking at the gendering of toys is through a Social Conflict perspective. This perspective conceives the emergence and persistence of social institutions and practices as the consequence of the exercise of power and explains their transformation as the result of conflict between different groups contending for power. In terms of toys and their messages, the two groups contending for power are less groups than they are ideas. One idea would be that people and the gender roles they should occupy should remain the same as theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been for generations, with omen occupying domestic spheres of society and men occupying public ones. The idea that battles this one would be a more modern idea that men and women can and should hold the same positions in society. The fact that toys are generally more in line with the former idea shows that that is the side of the battle that is currently Winning, making it the societal norm, at least in the realm of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s toys. Toys are a constant in the development of children and thus play a large role in their colonization. While some toys teach children positive messages about caring for ACH other, sharing, and other healthy traits, the majority of the child-play market is saturated with heavily gendered and extremely antiquated messages about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies and looks, traits, roles, behavior, and almost all aspects of their lives. The result of this is generation after generation of children who subconsciously take in false information about what it means to be a boy or a girl, a man or a woman. Social behavior is learned at a young age, and to teach children these outdated gender roles is to freeze our society in an era gone by when we should be advancing toward a more equal world instead. How to cite Gender Project, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
The republican ideology is a facet of the social fabric of the colonial citizens of America that may, arguably, have had the greatest affect on the struggle for independence and the formation of a constitutional form of government in the United States. The birth of the republican ideology, while impossible to place an exact date on, or even month, can be traced back more than a decade before the Revolutionary War. It can also be argued that this social machine began to function as a result of circumstances which led many colonist to choose to come to America. The uniformity of this ideology, however, would change and modify itself as circumstances warranted in the period between 1760 and 1800. It is first necessary to understand the exact reasons why the ancestors of the American revolutionaries chose to live in America, as opposed to staying in England, where a healthy and prosperous life was a much greater possibility. America was, in the eyes of its first English settlers, an open book with no writing on the pages. It was the foundation of a building that had not yet been built. Many felt that it was up to them to shape the way this new land would function, as opposed to the way Parliament or the King felt it should. The memories of these early pioneering settlers were a common theme for American revolutionaries before the Revolutionary War. These early settlers were the creators of the foundation to the building the revolutionaries would finish. Another common theme which drove the revolutionary ideology was the knowledge not only of the monumental significance of the job to be undertaken, but also the impact a free democracy on a scale as large as America would have on future generations of Americans who, certainly, would not take their freedom for granted. The ideology held by most American revolutionaries was one in which they knew their sacrifices would be acknowledged and appreciated by future generations of Americans. There was also the knowledge that America would serve as an example to God and the rest of the world of what the advantages of a free society could be. Religion also played an important role in the establishment of this ideology. God, in the eyes of the earliest revolutionaries, was on the side of liberty. There was religious justification for actions undertaken by both England and America. The English stated that rebellion was a sin, while the Americans stated that the corruption of England, as well as its intolerance of liberty to the point of warfare, was also a sin. War, from the religious perspective of the revolutionary in America before the outbreak of war with England, was seen as a necessary evil. God could permit war as a means of escaping tyranny, such as that which England was symbolic of. God was, in the eyes of the pre Revolutionary War revolutionaries, without question on the side of liberty and personal freedom. The suffering of Americans under the tyrannical hand of English government was much the same as the suffering undertaken by Jesus at the cross. He suffered for all the sinful people of the world. He died for our sins. The revolutionaries felt much the same way about any suffering that may be incurred throughout the war. They felt that it would be looked back upon as a sacrifice that they made for the success of future generations of Americans. On an even larger scale, it would also be looked upon as a sacrifice for liberty and freedom in all countries around the world who suffered under the sinful hand of oppression. The revolutionaries also had their own ideas about independence as well. To them independence was a necessity. It was absolutely key to any further advancement towards their ultimate goal of freedom to enjoy personal liberties. How exactly independence was physically achieved was not as important as the fact that it had already, and would always be, achieved in the minds of Americans. Their thoughts and actions were already that of an independent people regardless of whether or not England still had legal domain over them. Independence was a essential aspect of self-preservation which, according to the revolutionaries, was their objective. Their motive was not an act of active rebellion against authority as much as it was one of self-preservation. As the Revolutionary War continued to wage on longer than had been expected by many revolutionaries, it became clear that some sacrifices, or modifications of this ideology would have to be made. One of the first clear examples of this can be seen with the formation of the Continental
Thursday, March 19, 2020
A Historic vs. An Historic A Historic vs. An Historic A Historic vs. An Historic By Maeve Maddox My post A Useful Reminder About Ã¢â¬ËAnÃ¢â¬â¢ prompted an outpouring of emails asking, Ã¢â¬Å"How about an history or an historic?Ã¢â¬ Some points of English usage stir strong feelings. Placing the indefinite article Ã¢â¬Å"anÃ¢â¬ in front of the words historical or historic is one of these. Here are some comments prompted by a post I wrote on this topic several years ago: When people use Ã¢â¬Å"an historicalÃ¢â¬ on NPR, itÃ¢â¬â¢s because [theyÃ¢â¬â¢re] snooty. Only a Cockney or an hidiot [would say] Ã¢â¬Å"an historic.Ã¢â¬ [People who defend Ã¢â¬Å"an historicÃ¢â¬ ] are pseudo-intellectual, American linguistic Ã¢â¬Å"posers.Ã¢â¬ For certain Americans, itÃ¢â¬â¢s all about self-consciously pompous affectation! IÃ would never ever use Ã¢â¬Å"anÃ¢â¬ in front of any word with an aspirate H at the beginning. That just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what itÃ¢â¬â¢s for, and it sounds pretentious. The simple facts about the use of Ã¢â¬Å"an historicalÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"an historicÃ¢â¬ are these: 1. Style guides like The Chicago Manual of Style, The AP Stylebook, and The Penguin WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Manual regard the following as correct in modern usage: Ã¢â¬Å"a historical eventÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"a historic event.Ã¢â¬ 2. Many speakers still say and write Ã¢â¬Å"an historicalÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âand they do so with no intention of sounding affected, pompous, or pretentious. Pronunciation changes from generation to generation, but never in one fell swoop. Pockets of older forms continue to exist even after the majority of speakers have made the switch and authorities have recorded the new rules. The Google Ngram Viewer provides an interesting look at the progress of Ã¢â¬Å"an historicÃ¢â¬ vs Ã¢â¬Å"a historic.Ã¢â¬ In 1800, Ã¢â¬Å"a historicÃ¢â¬ barely shows. It begins its rise in the 1820s. In 1869, Ã¢â¬Å"a historicÃ¢â¬ is neck and neck with Ã¢â¬Å"an historic.Ã¢â¬ The two travel along fairly close together until the First World War when Ã¢â¬Å"an historicÃ¢â¬ pulls ahead and dominates until 1938. After that, Ã¢â¬Å"a historicÃ¢â¬ becomes the clear winner, although Ã¢â¬Å"an historicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"an historicalÃ¢â¬ remain in use. Here are two recent examples of the use of Ã¢â¬Å"an historicalÃ¢â¬ in the context of educated English: Primary sources enable the researcher to get as close as possible to the truth of what actually happened during an historical event or time period.Ã (Note on the New York University library site.) The Making of Southern Europe: An Historical Overview (title of a recent publication of the London School of Economics) Clearly, modern usage prefers Ã¢â¬Å"a historicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a historical,Ã¢â¬ as well as a before other Ã¢â¬Å"h wordsÃ¢â¬ that readers asked about: Ã¢â¬Å"a hotel,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"a horrible accident,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a horrific statistic.Ã¢â¬ The word herb (succulent plant used for seasoning) is pronounced both with and without an aspirated h. Ã¢â¬Å"A herbÃ¢â¬ is modern British pronunciation, although British author Edith Nesbit (1858-1924) wrote Ã¢â¬Å"an herbÃ¢â¬ in one of her novels. Many AmericansÃ¢â¬âalthough by no means allÃ¢â¬âsay Ã¢â¬Å"an erbÃ¢â¬ and write Ã¢â¬Å"an herb.Ã¢â¬ Unquestionably, accepted current practice is to use the indefinite article a in front of all but a very few words that begin with the letter h. The most common exceptions are: an heir to the throne an honorable man an honest man an hour or two Speakers who say Ã¢â¬Å"an historicÃ¢â¬ are not necessarily being Ã¢â¬Å"pretentious or snooty.Ã¢â¬ It could be that they learned the usage from family members and teachers educated in earlier generations. Follow the style guide of your choice. Save your linguistic wrath for things like, Ã¢â¬Å"Me and my brother graduated from Georgetown.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Creative Writing 1015 Brainstorming Strategies for WritersAppropriate vs. Apropos vs. Apt
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
The Influence of the Renaissance in Shakespeares Work ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very easy to think of Shakespeare as a unique genius with a singular perspective on the world around him. However, Shakespeare was very much a product of the radical cultural shifts that were occurring in Elizabethan England during his lifetime. When Shakespeare was working in theÃ theater, the Renaissance movement in the arts was peaking in England. The new openness and humanism are reflected in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays. The Renaissance in Shakespeares Time Broadly speaking, the Renaissance period is used to describe the era when Europeans moved away from the restrictive ideas of the Middle Ages. The ideology that dominated the Middle Ages was heavily focused on the absolute power of God and was enforced by the formidable Roman Catholic Church. From the 14th century onward, people started to break away from this idea. The artists and thinkers of the Renaissance did not necessarily reject the idea of God. In fact, Shakespeare himself may have been Catholic. The Renaissance cultural creators did, however, question humankindÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship to God. This questioning produced enormous upheaval in the accepted social hierarchy. And the new focus on humanity created new-found freedom for artists, writers, and philosophers to be inquisitive about the world around them. They often drew on the more human-centered classical writing and art of ancient Greece and Rome for inspiration. Shakespeare,Ã the Renaissance Man The Renaissance arrived in England rather late. Shakespeare was born towardÃ the end of the broader Europe-wide Renaissance period, just as it was peaking in England. He was one of the first playwrights to bring the RenaissanceÃ¢â¬â¢s core values to the theater. Shakespeare embraced the Renaissance in the following ways: Shakespeare updated the simplistic, two-dimensional writing style of pre-Renaissance drama. He focused on creating human characters with psychological complexity. Hamlet is perhaps the most famous example of this.The upheaval in social hierarchy allowed Shakespeare to explore the complexity and humanity of every character, regardless of their social position. Even monarchs were portrayed as having human emotions and were capable of making terrible mistakes. Consider King Lear or Macbeth.Shakespeare utilized his knowledge of Greek and Roman classics when writing his plays. Before the Renaissance, these texts had been suppressed by the Catholic Church. Religion in Shakespeares Time Elizabethan England endured a different form of religious oppression than that which had dominated the Middle Ages. When she took the throne, Queen Elizabeth I forced conversions and drove practicing Catholics underground with her imposition of the Recusancy Acts. These laws required citizens to attend worship in Anglican churches. If discovered, Catholics faced stiff penalties or even death. Despite these laws, Shakespeare did not appear to be afraid to write about Catholicism nor to present Catholic characters in a favorable light. His inclusion of Catholicism in his works has led historians to hypothesize that the Bard was secretly Catholic. Catholic characters included Friar Francis ( Much Ado About Nothing),Ã Friar Laurence (Romeo and Juliet), and evenÃ Hamlet. At the very least, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s writing indicates a thorough knowledge of Catholic rituals. Regardless of what he may have been doing secretly, he maintained a public persona as an Anglican. He was baptized in and buried atÃ Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, a Protestant church.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Mexican History - Term Paper Example Of course, the SpaniardsÃ¢â¬â¢ military superiority is well documented. MoctezumaÃ¢â¬â¢s warriors were bewildered by the firepower CortesÃ¢â¬â¢ men brought to bear and the Aztec population was decimated by the smallpox pandemic. It all happened with shocking speed: Cortes made landfall at the Gulf of Mexico in 1519; two years later, he and his men entered the smoking ruins of Tenochtitlan, masters of Mexico.1 In so short a time, the Aztec empire was completely shattered. Ã¢â¬Å"Conquered by Cortes, the Indians of central Mexico had to come to terms with a radically new society.Ã¢â¬ 2 What would follow was a cauldron of ethnic, social and political change. The conquest of the Aztecs was the great drama that raised the curtain on MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial epoch. The Spaniards had adroitly forged alliances among the peoples of Central Mexico, yet these fared little better than their Aztec victims. The Tarascans, among others, benefited in the short term from the conquest of Tenoc htitlan, but they were no more impervious to the ravages of smallpox than their ancient oppressors. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have long to wait before discovering that the Spanish, who had promised so much, were to become their new oppressors. 2 The first Audiencia, established by decree in 1527, established a pattern of corruption that would become a hallmark of the Spanish occupation. It was also illustrative of the struggle between church and government over a number of issues, not the least of which was the treatment of the natives. Juan de Zumarraga, first bishop of Mexico, wrote a letter to King Charles V of Spain complaining of the depredations committed by the administration of Nuno de Guzman. ZumarragaÃ¢â¬â¢s letter addressed everything from illegal land grabs to outright murder. He writes that since the Audiencia was established, Ã¢â¬Å"they have declared vacant many and very good encomiendas of Indians, more than thirty of them, either by exiling those who held them, or by con fiscationÃ¢â¬ 3 Zumarraga proceeded to list the encomiendas the Audiencia itself had bestowed on the native population. It got worse: Zumarraga went on to list breathtakingly immoral behavior by Guzman and his cronies. On one occasion, Ã¢â¬Å"the lords of Tlateloco of this city came to me weeping so bitterly that I was struck with pity for them; and they complained to me saying that the president and oidores were demanding of them their good-looking daughters, sisters, and female relatives.Ã¢â¬ 4 Things had gotten so bad, Zumarraga reported, that an Audiencia official demanded that the Indians provide what amounted to a personal harem for Guzman. The president had also wasted little time engaging in a slave trade at the expense of the natives. Zumarraga reached the end of his rope when the Audiencia forced him to desist from acting in the capacity of defender of Indian rights. Eventually, ZumarragaÃ¢â¬â¢s complaints and the opposition of GuzmanÃ¢â¬â¢s 3 political enemies, su ch as Cortes, were enough to convince the authorities of GuzmanÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt. In 1538, he was arrested for treason and for abusing the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s subjected Indian populations. One may question the veracity of some of ZumarragaÃ¢â¬â¢s charges, but there can be no doubt that Guzman and the oidores of the Audiencia had been told to treat the natives with respect and